QUICKLINKS AND VIEW OPITONS
U.S. NIH’s Obesity Guidelines Part 23: Dieting
Wednesday, December 15, 2004 3:20 am Email this article
The average weight loss on a low-calorie diet is 8 percent of body weight over three to twelve months according to the U.S. NIH's Obesity Guidelines (p. 42). The average long-term weight loss maintained after 3 to 4.5 years of follow-up is 4 percent of body weight. Very-low-calorie diet vs low-calorie diet: 9-27 lbs greater short-term loss
Short-term weight loss is greater with a very-low-calorie diet (VLCD) than a low-calorie diets (LCD), but beyond one year weight loss is similar.
In four studies patients on a VLCD for three to four months lost 29-51 pounds compared to 20-29 pounds for those on a LCD.
In three out of the four studies patients lost 9-27 pounds more on a VLCD. (p. 42)
The VLCDs supplied 400-500 calories per day, whereas the LCDs supplied 1,000-1,500 calories.
Very-low-calorie diet vs low-calorie diet: Mid-term weight loss 2-23 pounds greater weight loss
Between six and twelve months weight loss was 2-23 pounds greater in patients who had lost weight with a very-low-calorie diet. (p. 42)
Very-low-calorie diet vs low-calorie diet: Long-term weight loss no greater
One year after weight loss there was no difference in weight between the two groups. (p. 42)
Low-fat/low-calorie diets produce greater weight loss than low-fat alone
Low-fat diets have been shown to cause weight losses of 2-9 pounds by reducing calorie intake. (p. 44)
Reducing dietary fat without reducing calories does not cause weight loss, however, reducing fat as part of a low-calorie diet is a practical way to reduce calories.
Low-fat diet reduces calorie intake by 85-300 calories per day
One study found that a low-fat diet reduced intake by 85 calories per day, while another found a reduction of 300 calories per day.
Reducing fats and carbohydrates helps to reduce calorie intake. (p. 43-4)
Recommended diet: 800-1500 calories per day
The report recommends a low-calorie diet (LCD) of 800 to 1,500 calories per day. (p. 75)
Reducing intake by 300 to 500 calories per day will cause a weight loss 0.5 to 1 pound per week.
Reducing intake by 500 to 1,000 calories per day will cause a weight loss 1-2 pounds per week.
Weight loss consists of three-fourth fat, one-fourth muscle
Weight loss consists of 75 percent fat and 25 percent muscle. (p. 75)
Very-low-calorie diets not recommended
Very-low-calorie diets (VLCD) of less than 800 calories per day are not recommended because the calorie deficit is too great, and they are nutritionally inadequate, increase the risk of gallstones, and have not been found more effective in the long-term. (p. 75)
Low-calorie Step One Diet recommended
The following low-calorie step I diet is recommended: (p. 73-5)
- Calories: Reduce intake by 500 to 1,000 calories per day to lose 1-2 pounds per week (consisting of three-fourths fat and one-fourth muscle).
- Total Fat: 30 percent or less of total calories.
- Saturated Fatty Acids: 8 to 10 percent of total calories.
- Monounsaturated Fatty Acids: Up to 15 percent of total calories.
- Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids: Up to 10 percent of total calories.
- Cholesterol: less than 300 mg per day.
- Protein: Approximately 15 percent of total calories derived from plant sources or lean animal proteins.
- Carbohydrates: 55 percent or more of total calories from fruits, vegetables, and whole grains.
- Salt (sodium chloride): No more than 6,000 mg of salt (sodium chloride) per day, or a total of 2,400 mg of sodium.
- Calcium: 1,000 to 1,500 mg per day.
- Fiber: 20 to 30 grams per day.
- Alcohol: Alcohol calories need to be accounted and controlled for.
Low-calorie Step Two Diet to further reduce cholesterol
Patients with high cholesterol levels should follow a step II diet which limits saturated fats to 7 percent of calories, and cholesterol to 200 mg per day. (p. 74)
Clinical guidelines on the identification, evaluation, and treatment of overweight and obesity in adults : the evidence report / National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute [Bethesda, Md.] : National Institutes of Health, National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute, . NIH publication No. 98-4083.
Articles on the same subject can be found here:
Please feel free to share your comments about this article.
© Copyright 2003-2017 - Larry Hobbs - All Rights Reserved.