QUICKLINKS AND VIEW OPITONS
An extra 24 calories per day will cause men to gain of 3.9 lbs per year, women 4.6 lbs
Tuesday, February 22, 2005 1:22 am Email this article
How much weight will a person gain if they consume an extra 24 calories per day for a year? Men will gain 3.9 pounds in a year, while women will gain 4.6 pounds according to a new study from Denmark. Yikes! 24 calories in one-half cookie, two-thirds pat of butter, walking 4-5 minutes
This is the amount of calories in one-half a chocolate chip cookie or two-thirds of a pat of butter or the amount of calories burned walking 4-5 minutes.
Excess calories or fewer calories burned
This can be the result of excess calories consumed or fewer calories burned because of reduced activity.
1% difference in calories causes weight gain of 1 kg
“It has long been recognized that a body weight increase of about [2.2 pounds or 1 kilogram per] year is the result of a difference between energy intake and energy expenditure of about 1 percent,” the authors note.
82% of calories stored as body weight, 18% used to convert the calories to tissue
Eighty-two percent of the calories are stored as additional body weight, while 18 percent of the calories are used to convert energy into tissue.
In men, 67% of added weight is fat, 76% in women
In men, two-thirds (67 percent) of added weight is body fat, whereas in women, three-fourths (76 percent) is fat.
This model is for ‘normal’ people, under ‘normal’ conditions
This model is “an approximation under normal conditions… for ‘normal’ adults with body weight [of 143-242 pounds]”.
It is not meant for extreme conditions such as starvation or over-feeding and no extreme composition of food.
It is also not meant for “persons with extreme body composition, such as well trained athletes, very tall or short people, or very obese individuals.”
These results cannot be verified directly
The estimates in this paper cannot be verified directly because the calorie differences are too small and the time period is too long, the authors note.
“The above results cannot be verified by direct experiment because the relevant differences are smaller than the accuracy of measurement, and the period of observations would be prohibitively long.”
This paper helps explain to me why why exercise helps to maintain body weight. (Even small changes in calories burned have a significant impact over time.)
It also helps me to understand how much of an effect all of the energy-saving devices in the past few decades have had on the obesity epidemic. This includes the effect of things such as:
- remote-controlled televisions
- automatic garage door openers
- self-propelled lawn mowers
- self-propelled vacuum cleaners
This paper also suggests to me that correcting even small deficits in metabolism, such as raising even low-normal thyroid levels, sometimes referred to as “subclinical hypothyroidism”, might help people maintain their weight in the long run.
It also suggests to me that reducing calories absorbed by even small amounts, such as with fiber supplements such as guar gum, glucomannan or psyllium—which studies have shown can reduce calories absorbed by 30-180 calories per day—can also help to prevent weight gain.
Smoking increases metabolism 9.8%
This also helps to explain at least partially why people gain weight when they stop smoking. (Smoking increases metabolism by as much as 9.8 percent according to one study.
Green tea increases metabolism 70 calories per day
This estimate of effect of even a small increase in calorie intake also suggests that foods that increase metabolism, such as green tea, can help to maintain body weight. (Green tea increases metabolism by an average of 70 calories per day according to an interview with Abdul Dulloo, MD.
Although there is a lot of disagreement about the role of resting metabolism in obesity, at least one study found that formerly obese people burn about 147 fewer calories per day than people of the exact same weight who have never been obese, suggesting that metabolism does play a role (Dulloo, 1993).
Ephedrine, caffeine and theophylline increases metabolism 153 calories per day
This paper also suggests to me that drugs that increase metabolism, such as ephedrine and caffeine, can also help to maintain body weight. One study found that the combination of ephedrine, caffeine and theophylline (22 mg of ephedrine, 30 mg of caffeine and 50 mg of theophylline) increased metabolism by 8 percent which was equal to about 153 calories per day (dulloo, 1986).
Christiansen E, Garby L, Sorensen T. Quantitative analysis of the energy requirements for development of obesity. J Theor Biol. 2005 May 7, 234(1):99-106.
AUTHOR’S CONTACT INFORMATION
Department of Mathematics and Computer Science
University of Southern Denmark
Odense DK-5230, Denmark
Tel.: +45 6550 2322
fax: +45 6593 2691
Dulloo AG, Miller DS. The Thermogenic Properties of Ephedrine/ Methylxanthine Mixtures: Human Studies. International Journal of Obesity, 10: 467-481, 1986.
Dulloo AG. Ephedrine, xanthines and prostaglandin-inhibitors: actions and interactions in the stimulation of thermogenesis. International Journal of Obesity, 17 Supplement 1: S35-S40, 1993.
Articles on the same subject can be found here:
Please feel free to share your comments about this article.
© Copyright 2003-2017 - Larry Hobbs - All Rights Reserved.