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  • Female rats given high-fructose corn syrup gained 100% in 7 months vs 77% with rat chow only


    Posted by .(JavaScript must be enabled to view this email address)
    Monday, March 28, 2011 4:38 pm Email this article
    Growing female rats given 24-hour access to water containing 8% high-fructose corn syrup (HFCS) in addition to water and given access to regular rat chow, gained 100% of their body weight in seven (7) months compared to a normal weight gain of 77% for rats given access to rat chow and water only according to a study from researchers at Princeton University in Princeton, New Jersey, USA. Increase in Body Weight

    Increase in body weight in female rats after 7 months: 100% in 24 hour HFCS vs 77% with rat chow only vs 83% with 12-hour HFCS vs 83% with 12-hour sucrose

    Growing female rats giving access to HFCS 24-hours per day gained 100% of their body weight in 7 months versus a normal weight gain of 77% in those given rat chow only versus 83%—nearly the same amount of weight gain—in female rats given access to HFCS solution 12-hours per day versus 83% for those given access to a 10% sucrose solution 12-hours per day.

     

    Elevated Triglycerides

    Elevated Triglycerides from HFCS May Have Added To Body Fat

    The rats given the HFCS had elevated triglycerides levels in their blood—225 mg per deciliter for rats given access to 24-hour HFCS versus 153 mg per deciliter for rats given rat chow only, and 128 mg per deciliter for rats given access to a 10% sucrose solution 12-hours per day. (Sucrose is regular table sugar.)

    The researchers speculated that this may have been part of the reason that the rats given HFCS gained more weight and more body fat.

    “One important factor might be that the HFCS-induced weight gain is accompanied with hyper-triglyceridemia,” the researchers wrote.

    “Given the known role of [triglycerides] in fat accrual (Owen et al., 1979), the elevated [triglyceride] levels observed in the rats fed HFCS in the present study might account, in part, for the deposition of body fat.”

     

    No Difference in Insulin

    No difference in insulin levels in rats given HFCS

    “There were no differences found among the groups in serum insulin levels,” the researchers noted.

    Conclusion: Rats Gained More Weight on HFCS than on Sucrose

    “In the current study, long-term access to HFCS in rats led to obesity, while sucrose [table sugar] did not,” the researchers noted.

    “In Experiment 2 (long-term study, 6-7 months), HFCS caused an increase in body weight greater than that of sucrose [table sugar] in both male and female rats.”

    Conclusion: The Previously Found Rats Maintained Normal Bodyweight consuming 10% Sucrose

    “We have previously shown that rats are able to adjust for the excess calories obtained when consuming 10% sucrose by taking in fewer calories of chow and thereby maintaining a normal bodyweight (Avena et al., 2008).”

    Conclusion: HFCS Appears to Act Differently Than Sucrose on Body Weight

    “Several studies compare the effects of acute sucrose and HFCS on weight gain and metabolic profiles in humans (Akhavan and Anderson, 2007; Melanson et al., 2008; Stanhope et al., 2008), and most conclude that sucrose [table sugar] and HFCS similarly affect the body in the short term (Stanhope et al., 2008),” the authors noted.

    “However, little is known of the long-term effects of HFCS consumption on fat accrual.”

    “The preclinical data in Experiment 2 suggest that long-term exposure to HFCS compared with sucrose differentially affects body fat accrual,” the researchers continued.

    Conclusion: Rats With Access To HFCS Do NOT Maintain A Normal Body Weight

    “In summary, rats maintained on a diet rich in HFCS for 6 or 7 months show abnormal weight gain, increased circulating [triglycerides] and augmented fat deposition,” they noted.

    “All of these factors indicate obesity.”

    “Thus, over-consumption of HFCS could very well be a major factor in the ‘obesity epidemic’, which correlates with the upsurge in the use of HFCS,” the authors concluded.

     

    Why Does HFCS Cause Excess Weight Gain?

    No Difference In Total Calorie Intake in 2-Month Study Giving Access to HFCS 12-hours per day

    In a shorter 8-week study, there was was no difference in total calories consumed in rats given access to an 8% HFCS solution versus those given access to a 10% sucrose solution, however, the the HFCS group gained more weight even though the rats consumed fewer calories from the HFCS than the rats did from the sucrose.

     

    Total Calorie Intake

    Total Calorie Intake NOT measured in 6- and 7-Month Studies Giving Access to HFCS 24-hours per day

    However, it appears that they did NOT measure total calorie intake in two longer studies—6 months in male rats and 7 months in female rats, given access to HFCS 24-hours per day or HFCS 12-hours per day versus control rats given rat chow only.

     

    Possible Metabolic Changes Leading to Increased Fat Intake and Calorie Intake in Long-Term

    Possible metabolic changes—leptin resistance and insulin resistance—leading to increased fat intake and calorie intake in long-term

    Therefore, it is possible that metabolic changes occurred in the longer-term leading to an increase in calorie intake.

    However, they also noted that previous studies have found that rats given sucrose did NOT gain an excess amount of weight.

    The paper notes…

     

    Elevated Triglycerides Increases Fat Intake

    Elevated triglycerides increase fat intake in the long-term

    “Previous research has suggested that an elevated level of circulating [triglycerides] is, in part, responsible for an increase in high-fat intake (Chang et al., 2007).”

    “Therefore by chronically elevating serum [triglyceride] levels, HFCS may create a propensity towards fat intake and fat deposition.”

    Could cause leptin resistance and insulin resistance in the long-term

    “This could work to induce leptin and insulin resistance.”

     

    May Cause Over-Consumption

    Elevated triglycerides increase fat intake in the long-term

    “Taken together, leptin or insulin resistance and elevated [triglyceride] serum levels may promulgate food over-consumption and contribute to the corresponding obesity.”

     

    Males Gained More Than Females

    Males Gained More Weight and at a Faster Pace Than Females

    They also noted that male rats given access to HFCS 24-Hours per day gained more weight and at a faster pace than female rats.

    REFERENCE

    Bocarsly M, Powell E, Avena N, Hoebel B. High-fructose corn syrup causes characteristics of obesity in rats: Increased body weight, body fat and triglyceride levels. Pharmacol Biochem Behav. 2010 Nov, 97(1):101-06.

    AUTHOR’S CONTACT INFORMATION

    Bartley G. Hoebel
    Department of Psychology
    Green Hall
    Princeton University
    Princeton, NJ 08540, USA
    Tel.: +1 609 258 4463
    fax: +1 609 258 1113
    .(JavaScript must be enabled to view this email address)

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