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  • Lipid hypothesis of heart disease promoted even though studies did NOT support it, Mary Enig, PhD


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    Monday, September 12, 2011 12:50 pm Email this article
    "The 1968 International Atherosclerosis Project, in which over 22,000 corpses in 14 nations were cut open and examined for plaques in the arteries, showed the same degree of atheroma [ occlusions or plaque buildup in the arteries ] in all parts of the world—in populations that consumed large amounts of fatty animal products and those that were largely vegetarian, and in populations that suffered from a great deal of heart disease and in populations that had very little or none at all," writes lipid biochemist, Mary Enig, PhD, and journalist, Sally Fallon Morell in a wonderful, eye-opening article about fats and heart disease titled The Oiling of America. Studies Do NOT Support the Lipid Hypothesis

    Multiple studies Do NOT Support the Lipid Hypothesis of Coronary Heart Disease

    “All of these studies pointed to the fact that the thickening of the arterial walls is a natural, unavoidable process.”

    “The lipid hypothesis [ of coronary heart disease ] did not hold up to these population studies [ studies from the Japanese in 1955, the Bantu in 1957, Jamaicans in 1958, Japan in 1960, and a study of 14 countries in 1968 ], nor did it explain the tendency to fatal clots that caused myocardial infarction,” Enig and Morrell continue.

     

    American Heart Association Fund-Raiser on TV

    American Heart Association Fund-Raiser on TV in 1956

    “In 1956, an American Heart Association (AHA) fund-raiser aired on all three major [ television ] networks.

    “The MC interviewed, among others, Irving Page and Jeremiah Stamler of the AHA [ American Heart Association ], and researcher Ancel Keys [ the researcher responsible for convincing the world that saturated fat caused heart disease ].

    “Panelists presented the lipid hypothesis as the cause of the heart disease epidemic and launched the Prudent Diet, one in which corn oil, margarine, chicken and cold cereal replaced butter, lard, beef and eggs.

     

    Dr. Dudley White noted that Heart Attacks Were Nonexistent in 1900 When Corn Oil was Unavailable

    Dr. Dudley White of the American Heart Association noted that Heart Attacks were nonexistent in 1900 when people ate 3 times as many eggs, and corn oil was unavailable

    “But the television campaign was not an unqualified success because one of the panelists, Dr. Dudley White, disputed his colleagues at the AHA [ American Heart Association ].

    “Dr. White noted that heart disease in the form of myocardial infarction was nonexistent in 1900 when egg consumption was three times what it was in 1956 and when corn oil was unavailable.

     

    Dr. Dudley White Never Saw A Heart Attack from 1921 to 1928

    Dr. Dudley White of the American Heart Association Never Saw A Heart Attack from 1921 to 1928 When People Ate Butter and Lard, and No One Had Heard of Corn Oil

    “When pressed to support the Prudent Diet, Dr. White replied: “See here, I began my practice as a cardiologist in 1921 and I never saw an MI [ heart attack ] patent until 1928. Back in the MI free days before 1920, the fats were butter and lard and I think that we would all benefit from the kind of diet that we had at a time when no one had ever heard the word corn oil.”

    “But the lipid hypothesis had already gained enough momentum to keep it rolling, in spite of Dr. White’s nationally televised plea for common sense in matters of diet and in spite of the contradictory studies that were showing up in the scientific literature.

     

    In 1957, Anti-Coronary Club Study vs Those Eating Eggs, and Meat Three Times Per Day

    In 1957, Anti-Coronary Club Started, Using Corn Oil And Margarine Instead of Butter, Cold Breakfast Cereals Instead Of Eggs, and Chicken And Fish Instead Of Beef

    “In 1957, Dr. Norman Jolliffe, Director of the Nutrition Bureau of the New York Health Department initiated the Anti-Coronary Club, in which a group of businessmen, ranging in age from 40 to 59 years, were placed on the Prudent Diet.

    “Club members used corn oil and margarine instead of butter, cold breakfast cereals instead of eggs and chicken and fish instead of beef.

    “Anti-Coronary Club members were to be compared with a “matched” group of the same age who ate eggs for breakfast and had meat three times a day.

    “Jolliffe, an overweight diabetic confined to a wheel chair, was confident that the Prudent Diet would save lives, including his own.

     

    In 1957, The Food Industry Started Advertising Low-Fat Products, and Vegetable Oil

    In 1957, The Food Industry Started Advertising Low-Fat Products, and Vegetable Oil As Healthy

    “In the same year, the food industry initiated advertising campaigns that touted the health benefits of their products—low in fat or made with vegetable oils.

    A typical ad read: “Wheaties may help you live longer.”

     

    Vegetable Oil Advertised as Good for Your Heart

    Vegetable Oil Advertised as Good for Your Heart, and a Cholesterol Depressant

    “Wesson recommended its cooking oil “for your heart’s sake” a Journal of the American Medical Association ad described Wesson oil as a “cholesterol depressant.”

     

    Corn Oil Advertised as ‘Important To Your Health’

    Corn Oil Advertised as ‘Important To Your Health’

    “Mazola [ vegetable oil ] advertisements assured the public that ‘science finds corn oil important to your health.’

     

    Unsalted Margarine Advertised in Medical Journals for Blood Pressure

    Unsalted Margarine Advertised in Medical Journals for People with High Blood Pressure

    “Medical journal ads recommended Fleishmann’s unsalted margarine for patients with high blood pressure.

     

    The Head of Harvard University’s Nutrition Department Encouraged The Consumption Of Corn Oil

    Dr. Frederick Stare, Head of Harvard University’s Nutrition Department, Encouraged The Consumption Of Up to One Cup of Corn Oil Per Day

    Dr. Frederick Stare, head of Harvard University’s Nutrition Department, encouraged the consumption of corn oil—up to one cup a day—in his syndicated column.

     

    The Head of Harvard University’s Nutrition Department Did A Promotional Piece For Procter and Gamble’s Puritan Corn Oil

    Dr. Frederick Stare, Head of Harvard University’s Nutrition Department, Cited Two Studies, but Neither Had to Do with Coronary Heart Disease, and Neither Showed that Lowering Cholesterol Lowered Coronary Heart Disease

    “In a promotional piece specifically for Procter and Gamble’s Puritan oil, he cited two experiments and one clinical trial as showing that high blood cholesterol is associated with CHD [ coronary heart disease ].

    “However, both experiments had nothing to do with CHD [ coronary heart disease ], and the clinical trial did not find that reducing blood cholesterol had any effect on CHD [ coronary heart disease ] events.

     

    Director of the Framingham Study Endorsed Puritan Corn Oil

    Dr. William Castelli, Director of the Framingham Study, Endorsed Puritan Corn Oil

    “Later, Dr. William Castelli, Director of the Framingham Study was one of several specialists to endorse Puritan [ corn oil ].

     

    Former President of the American Heart Association Sent A Letter To Physicians Promoting Puritan Corn Oil

    Dr. Antonio Gotto, Jr, Former President of the American Heart Association, Sent A Letter on Baylor College of Medicine, The De Bakey Heart Center Letterhead, To Physicians Promoting Puritan Corn Oil

    “Dr. Antonio Gotto, Jr., former AHA [ American Heart Association ] president, sent a letter promoting Puritan Oil to practicing physicians—printed on Baylor College of Medicine, The De Bakey Heart Center letterhead.9

     

    1964 Study Found NO Definite Correlation Between Serum Cholesterol and Coronary Heart Disease

    In 1964, Famous Heart Surgeon, De Bakey, Found NO Definite Correlation Between Serum Cholesterol and Coronary Heart Disease

    “The irony of Gotto’s letter is that De Bakey, the famous heart surgeon, coauthored a 1964 study involving 1700 patients which also showed no definite correlation between serum cholesterol levels and the nature and extent of coronary artery disease.10

     

    Those With Low Cholesterol Levels Just As Likely To Have Blocked Arteries

    Those With Low Cholesterol Levels Just As Likely To Have Blocked Arteries As Those With High Cholesterol Levels

    “In other words, those with low cholesterol levels were just as likely to have blocked arteries as those with high cholesterol levels.

    “But while studies like De Bakey’s moldered in the basements of university libraries, the vegetable oil campaign took on increased bravado and audacity.

     

    The American Medical Association Opposed The Commercialization Of The Lipid Hypothesis

    At First, The American Medical Association Opposed The Commercialization Of The Lipid Hypothesis, Warning that the Anti-Fat, Anti-Cholesterol Fad is Foolish, Futile, and Carries Some Risk

    “The American Medical Association at first opposed the commercialization of the lipid hypothesis and warned that “the anti-fat, anti-cholesterol fad is not just foolish and futile… it also carries some risk.”

     

    The American Heart Association Was Committed To The Lipid Hypothesis

    The American Heart Association Was Committed To The Lipid Hypothesis

    “The American Heart Association, however, was committed.

     

    In 1961, The American Heart Association Published Dietary Guidelines

    In 1961, The American Heart Association Published Its First Dietary Guidelines Recommending Substituting Saturated Fat with Polyunsaturated Fats

    “In 1961 the AHA [ American Heart Association ] published its first dietary guidelines aimed at the public.

    “The authors, Irving Page, Ancel Keys, Jeremiah Stamler and Frederick Stare, called for the substitution of polyunsaturates for saturated fat, even though Keys, Stare and Page had all previously noted in published papers that the increase in CHD was paralleled by increasing consumption of vegetable oils.

     

    In 1956, Ancel Keys Suggested That Hydrogenated Vegetable Oils Might Be The Cause of Coronary Heart Disease

    In 1956, Ancel Keys Suggested That Hydrogenated Vegetable Oils Might Be The Underlying Cause Of The Coronary Heart Disease Epidemic

    “In fact, in a 1956 paper, Keys had suggested that the increasing use of hydrogenated vegetable oils might be the underlying cause of the CHD [ coronary heart disease ] epidemic.11

     

    Book Promoting Substituting Vegetable Oil for Butter and Saturated Fats

    Book Promoting Substituting Vegetable Oil for Butter and Saturated Fats Written by Jeremiah Stamler of the American Heart Association, Sponsored by The Makers of Mazola Corn Oil and Mazola Margarine

    “Stamler [ one of the coauthors of the American Heart Association’s Dietary Guidelines ] shows up again in 1966 as an author of Your Heart Has Nine Lives, a little self-help book advocating the substitution of vegetable oils for butter and other so-called “artery clogging” saturated fats.

    “The book was sponsored by makers of Mazola Corn Oil and Mazola Margarine.

     

    Why Wait for the Evidence?

    Jeremiah Stamler of the American Heart Association Promoted This Idea Before There Was Evidence to Support It

    “Stamler did not believe that lack of evidence should deter Americans from changing their eating habits.

    “The evidence, he stated, ’ ... was compelling enough to call for altering some habits even before the final proof is nailed down… the definitive proof that middle-aged men who reduce their blood cholesterol will actually have far fewer heart attacks waits upon diet studies now in progress.’

     

    Jeremiah Stamler of the American Heart Association Promoted the Prudent Diet

    Jeremiah Stamler of the American Heart Association Promoted the Prudent Diet, Recommending Using Skim Milk and Low-Fat Cheese, Reducing Egg Consumption, and Cutting Fat Off of Meats

    “His version of the Prudent Diet called for substituting low-fat milk products such as skim milk and low-fat cheeses for cream, butter and whole cheeses, reducing egg consumption and cutting the fat off red meats.

    “Heart disease, he lectured, was a disease of rich countries, striking rich people who ate rich food… including “hard” fats like butter.

     

    In 1966, Results of Dr. Jolliffe’s Anti-Coronary Club Experiment Were Published

    In 1966, Results of Dr. Jolliffe’s Anti-Coronary Club Experiment Were Published

    “It was in the same year, 1966, that the results of Dr. Jolliffe’s Anti-Coronary Club experiment were published in the Journal of the American Medical Association.12

     

    Cholesterol Levels Were Lower in Those on the Prudent Diet, However…

    Cholesterol Levels Were Lower in Those on the Prudent Diet—220 vs 25—However, There Were Eight (8) Deaths From Heart Disease in the Prudent Diet Group vs NONE in Those Eating Meat Three (3) Times a Day!

    “Those on the Prudent Diet of corn oil, margarine, fish, chicken and cold cereal had an average serum cholesterol of 220, compared to 250 in the meat-and-potatoes control group.

    “However, the study authors were obliged to note that there were eight deaths from heart disease among Dr. Jolliffe’s Prudent Diet group, and none among those who ate meat three times a day.”

    ————-

    Reference

    Enig M, Morell SF. The Oiling of America. 2000.
    http://www.westonaprice.org/know-your-fats/the-oiling-of-america

    ————-

    [Hobbs: Thyroid expert Broda Barnes, MD PhD gives a very convincing argument in his 1976 book Hypothyroidism: The Unsuspected Illness that low thyroid is the major cause of coronary heart disease, and that heart attacks increased after 1945 because medicine figured out how to prevent deaths from tuberculosis and other infections with drugs, which then allowed these low thyroid people to live long enough to die from coronary heart disease which tens of thousands of autopsies from Graz, Austria revealed that already existed in their blood vessels. Barnes argument is the most convincing to me as the major cause of heart disease, however, a few—only a very few—dietary factors such as the consumption of trans fats seem to also to be a causative factor.]

     

    About the Authors

    About the Authors : Mary G. Enig, PhD

    Mary G. Enig, PhD is an expert of international renown in the field of lipid biochemistry.

    She has headed a number of studies on the content and effects of trans fatty acids in America and Israel, and has successfully challenged government assertions that dietary animal fat causes cancer and heart disease.

    Recent scientific and media attention on the possible adverse health effects of trans fatty acids has brought increased attention to her work.

    She is a licensed nutritionist, certified by the Certification Board for Nutrition Specialists, a qualified expert witness, nutrition consultant to individuals, industry and state and federal governments, contributing editor to a number of scientific publications, Fellow of the American College of Nutrition and President of the Maryland Nutritionists Association.

    She is the author of over 60 technical papers and presentations, as well as a popular lecturer. Dr. Enig is currently working on the exploratory development of an adjunct therapy for AIDS using complete medium chain saturated fatty acids from whole foods.

    She is Vice-President of the Weston A Price Foundation and Scientific Editor of Wise Traditions as well as the author of Know Your Fats: The Complete Primer for Understanding the Nutrition of Fats, Oils, and Cholesterol, Bethesda Press, May 2000.

    She is the mother of three healthy children brought up on whole foods including butter, cream, eggs and meat.

    About the Authors : Sally Fallon Morell


    Sally Fallon Morell is the author of Nourishing Traditions: The Cookbook that Challenges Politically Correct Nutrition and the Diet Dictocrats (with Mary G. Enig, PhD), a well-researched, thought-provoking guide to traditional foods with a startling message:

     

    Animal fats and cholesterol are not villains but vital factors in the diet, necessary for normal growth, proper function of the brain and nervous system, protection from disease and optimum energy levels.

    She joined forces with Enig again to write Eat Fat, Lose Fat: The Healthy Alternative to Trans Fats, and has authored numerous articles on the subject of diet and health.

    The President of the Weston A. Price Foundation and founder of A Campaign for Real Milk, Sally is also a journalist, chef, nutrition researcher, homemaker, and community activist.

    Her four healthy children were raised on whole foods including butter, cream, eggs and meat.

    Articles on the same subject can be found here:


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