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Raw vegetables, 1.8 to 3.5 ounces per day, associated with 15% lower risk of death over 10-18 years
Sunday, October 14, 2018 1:01 am Email this article
The one-fourth of people consuming the third most amount of raw vegetables, roughly 1.8 to 3.5 ounces of raw vegetables per day (50-100 grams, 3rd Quartile), were 15% less likely to die over the next 10-18 years compared to the one-fourth of people consuming the least amount of raw vegetables or 0-1 ounce per day (0-23 grams, 1st Quartile) according to this study.
By comparison, the one-fourth of people consuming the third most amount of cooked vegetables, roughly 3.2 to 5.6 ounces of cooked vegetables per day (91-158 grams, 3rd Quartile), were 8% less likely to die over the next 10-18 years compared to the one-fourth of people consuming the least amount of cooked vegetables or 0-1.8 ounces per day (0-50 grams, 1st Quartile).
Consumption of raw vegetables seems to reduce the risk of death over 10-18 years roughly twice as much as consumption of cooked vegetables when comparing quartiles according to a study the European Prospective Investigation Into Cancer and Nutrition looking at Fruit and Vegetable Consumption and Mortality (the EPIC cohort).
Raw Vegetables Appear More Protective
Raw vegetables Offer Twice the Protection As Cooked Vegetables: 16% vs 7% Reduction for Top vs Bottom Quartiles
“Inverse associations were stronger for raw than for cooked vegetable consumption,” the study notes.
“When stratifying vegetable consumption by mode of preparation, we observed stronger inverse associations for raw vegetables [a 16% reduction in the risk of death over the 10-18 year follow-up for those in the highest quartile for raw vegetable consumption] than for cooked vegetables [a 7% reduction in the risk of death over the 10-18 year follow-upfor those in the highest quartile for raw vegetable consumption],” the paper notes.
“Stronger inverse associations were observed for raw vegetables when compared with cooked vegetables.
“The relation between raw vegetables and a lower risk of death has been observed previously.
“Possible mechanisms by which cooking affects the association between vegetables and mortality include changes in the availability of nutrients, destruction of digestive enzymes, and alteration of the structure and digestibility of vegetables.”
Subjects: 451,151 people from 10 European Countries
Survival analyses was performed on 451,151 people who were part of the EPIC cohort (the European Prospective Investigation Into Cancer and Nutrition), mostly aged between 25 and 70 years, recruited in 23 centers in 10 European countries (Denmark, France, Germany, Greece, Italy, the Netherlands, Norway, Spain, Sweden, and the United Kingdom) who were recruited between 1992 and 2000 and followed until 2010.
Leenders M, Sluijs I, Ros MM, Boshuizen HC, Siersema PD, Ferrari P, Weikert C, Tjonneland A, Olsen A, Boutron-Ruault MC, Clavel-Chapelon F, Nailler L, Teucher B, Li K, Boeing H, Bergmann MM, Trichopoulou A, Lagiou P, Trichopoulos D, Palli D, Pala V, Panico S, Tumino R, Sacerdote C, Peeters PH, van Gils CH, Lund E, Engeset D, Redondo ML, Agudo A, Sanchez MJ, Navarro C, Ardanaz E, Sonestedt E, Ericson U, Nilsson LM, Khaw KT, Wareham NJ, Key TJ, Crowe FL, Romieu I, Gunter MJ, Gallo V, Overvad K, Riboli E, and Bueno-de-Mesquita HB. Fruit and vegetable consumption and mortality: European prospective investigation into cancer and nutrition. Am J Epidemiol, 2013 Aug 15; 178(4): 590-602.
Author’s Contact Info
Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology
University Medical Center Utrecht, F02.618
P.O. Box 85500
3508 GA Utrecht, the Netherlands
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