fatnews.com

Discussion Forums
NEW!

Discussion Forums

Recent Forum Topics
NEW!

Recent Forum Topics
We welcome your comments, experience, expertise and insight on various topics about weight loss in these discussion forums.

STORE

The Store

SEARCH THIS SITE


Advanced Search

SEARCH THE WEB

Google

CONTACT US

  • Contact Us
  • Submit your suggestions to improve this site
  • Submit an article you would like reviewed
  • Suggest a drug, nutrient or diet you would like reviewed
  • TABLES

    BMI Table for adults
    BMI Table defining childhood obesity
    Glycemic Index Tables

    MEMBERS

    Login
    Register

    MAILING LIST

    CATEGORIES

    (Tip: To find articles about a particular subject, either search for a particular word, click "Category View" above, or select the category you are interested in from the list below.)
    5-HTP (5-Hydroxytryptophan)
    9 things I've learned about doctors
    Abilify (aripiprazole)
    Acarbose (Precose)
    Accountability
    ACE Inhibitor
    Acetyl-L-Carnitine
    Acomplia (rimonabant)
    Actonel (risedronate)
    Actos (pioglitazone)
    Adherence (compliance) to treatment
    Adiponectin
    Aging
    AIDS
    Air Conditioning
    Alcohol
    Alcoholism
    Alii (orlistat) - (also see Xenical)
    All-you-can-eat
    Allergies, Food and Brain
    Almonds
    Alpha Lipoic Acid
    Aluminum
    Alzhemier's Disease
    Amantadine (Symmetrel)
    Ambien (zolpidem)
    Amino Acids
    Amitriptyline (See Elavil)
    Amphetamines
    Amylase inhibitors (See Starch Blockers)
    Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS)
    Anafranil (clomipramine)
    Angina (chest pain)
    Animal-based diet
    Antibiotics
    Antidepressants
    Antihistamines
    Antipsychotic drugs
    Anxiety
    Arginine
    Arthritis
    Articles by others
    Artificial sweetners (general)
    Aspartic Acid
    Aspirin
    Asthma
    Attention Deficit Hyperactive Disorder -- ADHD
    Autism
    Avandia (rosiglitazone)
    Axokine
    Azithromycin
    Bariatric Surgery (See Weight Loss Surgery)
    Behavioral Therapy, Cognitive
    Belviq (lorcaserin hydrochloride)
    Benefits of weight loss
    Benzodiazepines
    Beta Blockers
    Binge Eating
    Bioidentical hormones
    Birth Control Pills
    Bisphosphonates (osteoporosis drugs)
    Blacks
    Blood Donation
    Blood Pressure
    Blood Pressure Drugs
    Blood Pressure Drugs INCREASED Death in Older women
    Blood sugar
    BMI not perfect
    BMI Table
    BMI, Healthiest (Healthiest BMI)
    Body Composition
    Bone Fractures
    Bone mass
    Book - Blue Zones
    Book - Cholesterol Myths (by Uffe Ravnskov, MD, PhD)
    Book - Deadly Medicines and Organised Crime (by Prof. Peter Gøtzsche, MD)
    Book - Deadly Psychiatry and Organised Denial (by Prof. Peter Gøtzsche, MD)
    Book - Good Calories, Bad Calories (by Gary Taubes)
    Book - Malignant Medical Myths
    Book - Our Daily Meds
    Book - The Black Swan
    Book - The Plant Paradox (by Steven Gundry, MD)
    Book - Why We Get Fat (by Gary Taubes)
    Book: The Three Best Ways to Lose Weight
    Brain Allergies (See Allergies, Food and Brain)
    Breakfast
    Breast-feeding
    Broda Barnes, MD, PhD (thyroid expert)
    Bromocriptine (Ergoset)
    Bulimia
    Bupropion (See Wellbutrin)
    Byetta (exenatide)
    C-reactive protein
    Caffeine
    Calcium
    Calcium Channel Blockers
    Calorie content of food
    Calorie Density of Food
    Calorie Intake
    Calorie intake, Underreporting
    Calorie Restriction
    Cancer
    Cancer screening (Does it do any good?)
    Cancer treatments
    Cancer, Bladder
    Cancer, Bowel
    Cancer, Brain
    Cancer, Breast
    Cancer, Cervical
    Cancer, Colorectal
    Cancer, Endometrial
    Cancer, Gallbadder
    Cancer, Hodgkin's Lymphoma
    Cancer, Kidney
    Cancer, Leukemia
    Cancer, Liver
    Cancer, Lung
    Cancer, Multiple Myeloma
    Cancer, Non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma
    Cancer, Oesophageal
    Cancer, Oesophageal (adenocarcinoma)
    Cancer, others
    Cancer, Ovarian
    Cancer, Pancreatic
    Cancer, Prostate
    Cancer, Stomach (gastric cardia)
    Cannabis (marijuana)
    Caralluma fimbriata
    Carbohydrates
    Carnitine, L- (L-carnitine)
    Carpal tunnel syndrome
    Celexa (citalorpam)
    Cell Phones
    Cereal
    Chelation Therapy, EDTA
    Chemtrails
    Chewing
    Chickenpox
    Childhood Illnesses
    Childhood neglect and abuse
    Childhood Obesity
    Chitosan
    Chocolate (cocoa)
    Cholesterol
    Cholesterol drugs
    Cholesterol Hypothesis Skeptics
    Cholesterol Myths
    Cholesterol, HDL
    Cholesterol, LDL
    Chromium
    Chronic Fatigue
    Citrus aurantium
    CLA (Conjugated Linoleic Acid)
    Clozaril (clozapine)
    Cobalt
    Cochrane Collaboration
    Codonopsis Eupolyphaga
    Coffee
    Coffee, Decaffeinated
    Cognitive function
    Commercial Weight Loss Programs
    Computer Use
    Conflicts of Interest
    Congestive Heart Failure
    Constipation
    Contrave (Wellbutrin (bupropion) plus naltrexone)
    Copper
    CoQ10 (Coenzyme Q10, ubiquinol, ubiquinone)
    Coronavirus COVID-19
    Cortisol (stress hormone)
    Cost of food
    Costs associated with obesity
    Cravings
    Cymbalta (duloxetine)
    Daniel Amen, MD
    Death, Risk of
    Deaths from obesity
    Definitions
    Dementia (see Alzheimer's also)
    Dental Amalgams (mercury fillings)
    Depo-Provera (depot-medroxyprogesterone acetate)
    Depression
    Desire to Lose Weight
    DHEA
    Diabetes
    Diabetes drugs
    Diagnosed Overweight by a Doctor
    Dialysis
    Diet drug use
    Diet Pills (General Info)
    Diet soda
    Dietary Counseling
    Diethylpropion (Tenuate)
    Dieting (General)
    Dieting, Intermittent
    Dinitrophenol
    Disability
    Discrimination against obesity
    Diuretics
    Diverticulitis
    Doctor - Abram Hoffer, MD, PhD
    Doctor - Boyd Haley, PhD
    Doctor - Dr. Kailash Chand
    Doctor - H. Gilbert Welch, MD (author of Overdiagnosed and Less Medicine, More Health)
    Doctor - Irving Kirsch, PhD
    Doctor - Jason Fung, MD
    Doctor - Joel Kauffman, PhD (author of Malignant Medical Myths)
    Doctor - John Abramson, MD (author of Overdosed America)
    Doctor - Jonathan Wright, MD (pioneer in natural medicine)
    Doctor - Kimber Stanhope, PhD
    Doctor - Malcolm Kendrick, MD author of "The Great Cholesterol Con"
    Doctor - Marcia Angell, MD
    Doctor - Mary Enig, PhD
    Doctor - Michel de Lorgeril, MD
    Doctor - Peter Gøtzsche, MD
    Doctor - Robert Lustig, MD
    Doctor - Steven Gundry, MD
    Doctor - Suzanne Humphries, MD
    Doctor - Timothy Noakes
    Doctor - Uffe Ravnskov, MD PhD
    Doctor - William Wilson, MD
    Doctor trends
    Doctors are blind to drug-induced side effects
    Don't fall for this
    Dopamine agonists
    Drug company lies
    Drug Company Money
    Drug Company Salesman
    Drug Company Tactics
    Drug-induced Side Effects
    Dry Skin
    Duodenal Switch (weight loss surgery)
    Eating time of day
    Economic Issues and Obesity
    Education
    Eggs
    Elavil (amitriptyline)
    Elderly
    Elderly, risk of obesity
    Electrolyte abnormalities (magnesium, potassium, sodium, calcium, phosphate)
    Empatic (Zonegran plus Wellbutrin)
    Environmental chemicals
    Ephedrine/Ephedra
    Epigenetics
    Erectile Dysfunction
    Escitalopram (Lexapro)
    Estrogen replacement therapy
    Evening Primrose Oil
    Every Other Day Modified Fast
    Excalia
    Exercise
    Exhaustion
    Fast Food
    Fasting, Intermittent
    Fat Cells
    Fat Intake (Dietary Fat)
    Fat loss
    Fat Oxidation
    Fat Replacers
    Fat, Body (Body Fat)
    Fat, Dietary
    FDA (U.S. Food and Drug Administration)
    Fen-Phen
    Fertility (see Pregnancy)
    Fiber (Dietary Fiber)
    Fiber supplements
    Fidgeting
    Fish
    Fish Oil (omega-3 fatty acids)
    Flaxseed
    Food Allergies (See Allergies, Food and Brain)
    Food Cues
    Food Diary
    Food Intake statistics
    Food preferences associated with obesity
    Food Pyramid
    Food Safety
    Food's effect on appetite
    Foods associated with higher and lower body weight
    Foods Associated with Weight Gain
    Forskolin (from the plant Coleus forskohlii)
    Fosamax (alendronate)
    Fructose
    Fruit
    Fucoxanthin
    GABA
    Gallbadder Disease
    Gallstones
    Garlic
    Gastro-esophageal reflux disease
    General Health Checks
    Genes and genetics
    Geodon (ziprasidone)
    Ghrelin
    Ginger
    Ginseng
    GLA (Gamma Linolenic Acid)
    GLA - Gamma Linolenic Acid
    Glucomannan (konjac root)
    Glucophage (metformin)
    Glutamine (amino acid)
    Glycemic Index
    Glycemic Index Tables
    Glycomacropeptide
    GMO foods (genetically modified organisms)
    Grains
    Grapefruit
    Green coffee bean extract
    Green Tea
    Group Therapy
    Growth Hormone
    Guar gum
    Gut Bacteria
    Gwen Olsen
    Habits associated with obesity
    Habits of being lean
    Hair Loss (caused by weight loss)
    Haldol (haloperidol)
    Hawaiian Diet
    HCG (human chorionic gonadotropin)
    Headaches
    Health Insurance
    Health Risks of obesity
    Heart Attack (myocardial infarction)
    Heart Disease
    Heart Disease, Coronary - Skeptics of the Cholesterol Hypothesis
    Heavy metal toxicity
    Herbal formula, Number Ten
    Herbal formula, PM-F2-OB
    Hibiscus tea
    High Carbohydrate Diet
    High-Fructose Corn Syrup
    High-Protein / Low-Carb Diets
    Histamine levels
    History
    Holiday Weight Gain
    Homocysteine
    Hoodia
    Hop extract, isomerized
    Hunger
    Hydralazine
    Hydrogenated vegetable oil (partially hydrogenated oil)
    Hydroxychloroquine
    Hydroxycitrate (HCA)
    Hypoglycemia
    Hypothyroidism, including Type 2 Hypothyroidism
    IGF-1 (insulin-like growth factor-1)
    Income level
    Infections
    Infertility
    Influenza (Flu)
    Injuries
    Insulin
    Insulin sensitivity
    Interview with Patients
    Interview with Stephen Gullo, PhD
    Interviews
    Interviews with Doctors
    Iodine
    Jenny Craig Weight Loss Program
    Joan Mathews Larson, PhD
    John Ioannidis
    Just for Fun
    Kidney Disease
    Kidney Injury, Acute
    Kidney Stones
    Kidney stones
    Konjac root (See glucomannan)
    Krill Oil
    Lap Band Surgery
    Lead (heavy metal toxicity)
    Lean, things associated with being
    Legumes
    Leptin
    Lesbians
    Leucine (amino acid)
    Life Expectancy
    Lipolysis (release of fat from fat cells)
    Liposuction
    Lipozene (see glucomannan)
    Liquid Calories
    Liraglutide
    Longevity
    Lorcaserin (also see Belviq (lorcaserin hydrochloride))
    Low Calorie Diet
    Low Carbohydrate Diets
    Low Fat Diets
    Low Stomach Acid
    Lp(a)
    Ludiomil (maprotiline)
    Luvox (fluvoxamine)
    Magnesium
    Maitake mushroom
    Mammography
    Marijuana (see Cannabis)
    Mark Starr, MD
    Married or Single
    Meal Frequency
    Meal Replacement Shakes
    Measles
    Measurments of obesity
    Meat, Red
    Mediterranean Diet
    Medium chain triglycerides (MCT's)
    Men, studies about
    Menopause
    Menstruation
    Mercury
    Mercury fillings (Dental amalgams)
    Meridia (sibutramine)
    Metabolic syndrome (also see Insulin Sensitivity)
    Metabolism
    Mifeprex (mifepristone)
    Milk and Dairy
    Mineral aspartates
    Mirapex (pramipexole)
    Mirtazapine (antidepressant Remeron)
    Moban (molindone)
    Monounsaturated fat (Olive Oil and Canola Oil)
    Mortality associated with obesity
    Motivational techniques for losing weight
    Movies
    MSG (monosodium glutamate)
    Multiple Myeloma (See Cancer, Multiple Myeloma)
    Mumps
    Myths, Medical Myths
    N-Acetyl-Cysteine (NAC)
    Naltrexone
    Nasal Blockage
    Nassim Taleb
    Natural Treatments
    Nestatin-1
    Neurontin (gabapentin)
    Niacin (vitamin B3)
    Nicotine
    Night Eating Syndrome
    Night workers/shift workers
    No Dinner Diet
    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease
    Nortriptyline (See Pamelor)
    Nutrasweet (aspartame)
    Nuts (also see Almonds)
    Obesity Forecasts
    Obesity Guidelines, NIH
    Obesity statistics
    Obesity Statistics, US States
    Obesity, Causes of
    Obesity, Factors associated with
    Oleoyl-estrone
    Olestra
    Olive Oil
    Omega-3 Fatty Acids (fish oil)
    Omega-6 Fatty Acids
    Onions
    Oolong Tea
    Opinion
    Orthomolecular Medicine
    Osteoporosis drugs (Bisphosphonates)
    Over-treatment
    Paleo Diet
    Pamelor (nortriptyline)
    Parent's influence on obesity
    Parkinson's Disease
    Paroxetine (antidepressant Paxil)
    PCSK9 inhibitors (cholesterol-lowering drugs)
    Pedometer
    Periactin (cyproheptadine)
    Periodontal Gum Disease
    Personal stories about weigh loss
    Phen-Pro (Phentermine-Prozac or other SSRIs)
    Phendimetrazine (Bontril)
    Phentermine
    Phenylephrine
    Phosphodiesterase type-5 inhibitors, sildenafil (Viagra), tadalafil (Cialis), vardenafil (Levitra)
    Plastic's effect on body weight
    Plate Size
    Pokeweed extract
    Polar Weight Management Program
    Polio Vaccine (Salk Vaccine)
    Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome
    Polyunsaturated Fat
    Port, Sidney (UCLA statistician)
    Portion size, effect on calore intake
    Post-traumatic stress disorder
    Postnatal weight gain (immediately after birth)
    Postpartum depression
    Potassium
    Pramlintide (see Symlin)
    Predicted Weight Loss
    Pregnancy
    Pregnant women, effects on offspring
    Prejudice against obesity
    Prevalence of Obesity
    Prices for drugs
    Prolixin (fluphenazine)
    Prostate, Enlarged
    Protamine
    Protein (general)
    Protein from meat
    Protein from nuts & seeds
    Protein from plants
    Protein Leverage Theory
    Protein Source
    Protein supplement
    Protein, High, Diet
    Protein, Low, Diet
    Protein, Soy
    Proton pump inhibitors
    Proton Pump Inhibitors (PPI's)
    Prozac (fluoxetine)
    PSA Test (Prostate Specific Antigen)
    Psychiatric Drugs
    Pu-erh Tea (Chinese Black Tea)
    Pursuing Weight Control
    Pyruvate
    Qsymia (phentermine and topiramate) (formerly Qnexa)
    Quality of Life
    Quercetin
    Radiation (background ionizing radiation)
    Rate of Eating
    Raw food diet
    Red Yeast Rice
    Remdesivir (anti-viral medication)
    Resistant Starch
    Resveratrol
    Rhodiola rosea (Golden root or Arctic root)
    Rice
    Richard Moore, MD, PhD
    Risperdal (risperidone)
    Ritalin (methylphenidate)
    Robert Skversky, MD
    Robert Whitaker (author & journalist)
    Rubidium
    Saccharin (artificial sweetner)
    Saturated Fat
    Sauna
    Scams
    Schizophrenia
    Seizures
    Self-help weight loss
    Self-reported height and weight
    Self-reported intake
    Serentil (mesoridazine)
    Serlect (sertindole)
    Seroquel (quetiapine)
    Serotonin Syndrome
    Serzone (nefazodone)
    Sex and Sexual Activity
    Sexual abuse
    Shift Workers
    Sick Days
    Simmondsin (jojoba plant seed extract)
    Skinny on Obesity video series
    Sleep
    Sleeping pills
    Smoking's effect on weight
    Snacks
    Snoring
    Social Influence
    Sodium Intake
    Soft drinks (Coke, Pepsi, etc.)
    South Beach Diet
    Splenda (sucralose)
    Spouses
    SSRI's
    Starch Blockers (Amylase inhibitors)
    Statin Nation (documentary)
    Statins
    Stearic Acid (in beef and chocolate)
    Stents (coronary artery stents)
    Strattera (atomoxetine)
    Strength Training
    Stress
    Stroke, hemorrhagic
    Stroke, ischemic
    Sugar Addiction
    Sugar intake
    Suicide
    Sumatriptan
    Sun Bathing, Benefits of
    Surmontil (trimipramine)
    Symlin (pramlintide)
    Symlin (pramlintide)
    Sympathetic Nervous Activity (SNS)
    Taranabant
    Tart Cherry Juice
    Taste
    Taubes, Gary
    Taxes and Obesity
    Tea
    Television Watching
    Temperature, House
    Tenuate (See diethylpropion)
    Termite fumigation (with sulfuryl fluoride)
    Tesofensine
    Testosterone
    Thermogenesis
    Thermography
    Thimerosal (mercury-containing preservative)
    Thorazine (chlorpromazine)
    Thyroid Function
    Thyroid supplement
    Thyroid, Desiccated
    Timeline related to obesity discoveries
    Tofranil (imipramine)
    Tofu (soybean curd)
    Tonsils
    Too much medicine
    Topamax (topiramate)
    TOPS (Take Off Pounds Sensibly)
    Trans Fats
    Trazedone (antidepressant)
    Tricyclic antidepressants
    Triglyceride levels
    Tryptophan
    Underreporting weight
    Urinary incontinence
    Vaccines
    Vegetable-based Diet
    Vegetables
    Vegetables, Raw
    Vegetarians
    Venlafaxine (antidepressant Effexor)
    Ventricular arrhythmias
    Vertical Banded Gastroplasty
    Very-Low-Calorie Diets
    Vibration, Whole Body
    Vinegar
    Virus and Bacteria associated with obesity
    Virus, obesity (adenovirus-36)
    Visual Cues
    Vitamin C
    Vitamin D
    Vitamins
    Waist measurement
    Waist-to-Hip Ratio
    Wansink, Brian (studies done by)
    Water
    Weighing, Self
    Weight cycling (gaining and losing)
    Weight gain
    Weight Lifting
    Weight Loss Expectations
    Weight Loss Programs
    Weight Loss Strategies
    Weight Loss Success (what successful weight losers do)
    Weight Loss Supplements
    Weight Loss Supplements, Adulterated
    Weight loss surgery
    Weight Loss Surgery - Laparoscopic Sleeve Gastrectomy
    Weight Loss, Benefits of
    Weight loss, Rate of
    Weight loss, risks of
    Weight Maintenance
    Weight monitoring
    Weight Perception
    Weight Watchers
    Weight-gaining drugs
    Wellbutrin (bupropion)
    Wine, Red
    Women, studies about
    Work, Lost Days
    Xenical (orlistat)
    YouTube videos
    Zerona laser
    Zetia (ezetimibe)
    Zinc
    Zocor (simvastatin)
    Zoloft (sertraline)
    Zonegran (zonisamide)
    Zyprexa (olanzapine)

    ARCHIVES

    May, 2020
    April, 2020
    March, 2020
    February, 2020
    January, 2020
    December, 2019
    November, 2019
    October, 2019
    September, 2019
    August, 2019
    July, 2019
    June, 2019

    ARCHIVE SUMMARY

    View by Date
    View by Category

    RSS / XML


    RSS 1.0
    RSS 2.0
    RSS Atom

    WEATHER

    Weather around the country
    Home page  >  Article | Previous article | Next article

    QUICKLINKS AND VIEW OPITONS

  • Articles with Recent Comments
  • Recent Forum Topics
  • Summary View
  • Headline View
  • Archive of Quotes
  • Follow @fatnews

    Cholesterol Myths by Uffe Ravnskov MD PhD: Myth 9: The Cholesterol Campaign is Based on Good Science


    Posted by .(JavaScript must be enabled to view this email address)
    Wednesday, November 12, 2014 9:55 am Email this article

    ”… the fourth and last wrong measure of probability I shall take notice of, and which keeps in ignorance or error more people than all the other together, is… the giving up our assent to the common received opinions, either of our friends or party, neighbourhood or country. How many men have no other ground for their tenets than the supposed honesty, or learning, or number of those of the same profession? As if honest or bookish men could not err, or truth were to be established by the vote of the multitude; yet this with most men serves the turn. If we could but see the secret motives that influenced the men of name and learning in the world, we should not always find that it was the embracing of truth for its own sake, that made them espouse the doctrines they owned, and maintained.”
    —John Locke (1632-1704)

    “When two people share responsibility, they will each carry only one percent of the burden, at most.”
    —Piet Hein 
(1906-1996; Danish poet and physicist)

    The proofs

    “It has been established beyond a reasonable doubt that lowering definitely elevated blood cholesterol levels…will reduce the risk of heart attacks caused by coronary heart disease.”

    If you have read this book, you probably wonder if I just quoted a drug advertisement, and if the drug company got taken to court for misleading advertising practices. The statement, however, is quoted, word for word, from the summary of a consensus conference held at the National Institutes of Health in 1984[265]. The aim of this conference was to discuss how the results of the LRC trial should be translated into general recommendations for the American people.

    The conference was headed by Basil Rifkind, who had been the director of the trial. Rifkind also determined who would be invited to join the panel that formulated the final recommendations.

    Consensus is Latin for accord or unanimity. There were no such feelings in the audience, however. Among the many critical voices, Professor Michael Oliver from Scotland, the director of the early WHO trial, stressed that the trend towards an increased mortality from other causes was as strong as the trend towards a reduced mortality from coronary heart disease. “Why explain these results away?” he asked.

    A British epidemiologist named Richard Peto admitted that in every trial “something ridiculous” had happened. But, he said, while no single trial was convincing, the trial evidence was impressive when analyzed together. (Does this sound familiar?)

    Biostatistician Paul Meier from the University of Chicago opposed Rifkind’s presentation of the LRC trial. He remarked: “To call ‘conclusive’ a study which showed no difference in total mortality, and by the usual statistical criteria, an entirely non-significant difference in coronary incidents, seems to me a substantial misuse of the term.”

    There was no unanimity, either, about the treatment that was going to be introduced. One speaker at the conference advised lowering dietary cholesterol; another advised lowering dietary fat of animal origin and did not think that dietary cholesterol had any importance; a third member recommended lowering the caloric intake, no matter how.

    The final statement from the conference resolved the disagreements by recommending all three dietary measures. Criticism from the audience was simply swept under the rug. Some of the critics were cut off by the panel chairman, Daniel Steinberg, who cited a lack of time. Requests to write a minority report were denied as inconsistent with the conference’s goal of consensus.[266]

    Let us now look at the findings, which the panel considered as the scientific support for their recommendations. Here they are at last, all the proofs, which, added to each other, supposedly speak overwhelmingly for the diet-heart idea. Knowing the radical measures, which followed, we can be confident that the panel members included all available arguments. Here they come, all the strong proofs.

    Proof #1

    The inherited disorders prove that high blood cholesterol by itself can induce coronary heart disease.

    This is pure speculation. What we do know is that people with inherited disorders have high cholesterol because the passage of cholesterol from blood to cell is slowed down. What we also know is that atherosclerosis is more widespread and more severe in these individuals. But is it true atherosclerosis? And is it really caused by t heir high cholesterol?

    What is special for individuals with familial hypercholesterolemia is best seen in the rare homozygous form, the form that appears when both parents have the deficient gene for the LDL-receptor. Autopsy studies of such individuals show that cholesterol deposition is increased, not only in their vessels, but generally, throughout their bodies. Many other organs are impregnated with cholesterol, just as is seen in cholesterol-fed rabbits.

    The vascular changes seen in people with the more common heterozygous form of familial hyper?cholesterolemia are more difficult to analyze because these changes must partly be due to the metabolic error and partly to common atherosclerosis. And how do we know if possible effects of treatment stem from reduction of the changes caused by the inborn error or from reduction of atherosclerosis? Thus, any conclusion, which may be true for individuals with familial hypercholesterolemia, cannot possibly be valid for the rest of mankind.

    Proof #2

    Animals become atherosclerotic when they are fed diets that raise their blood cholesterol, and the atherosclerosis disappears when their cholesterol is lowered again with diet or drugs.

    What the animal experiments are worth as evidence is seen in chapter 5. The fact that vascular changes, produced by an extremely unnatural diet, disappear when the diet is terminated cannot prove anything about human atherosclerosis. The fact that vascular changes produced by an extremely unnatural diet forced down in a stressed rabbit’s stomach by catheter disappear when the diet is terminated cannot prove anything about human atherosclerosis. Weird John’s gastric ulcer, caused by his swallowing iron nails, disappeared when John ceased eating hardware. But this is no proof that other patients’ gastric ulcers are caused from eating building materials.

    Wisely, nothing was said in the report about coronary heart disease, because it is not possible to produce this disease in animals only by increasing blood cholesterol.

    Proof #3

    There is a direct connection between blood cholesterol and the occurrence of coronary heart disease in various populations.

    Look at this diagram. It is based on data from WHO and FAO and shows the association between cardiovascular mortality and serum cholesterol in various countries. If anything, low mortality is seen more often in countries where mean cholesterol is highest.

    Proof #4

    People who have emigrated to another country with a higher average blood cholesterol level gradually acquire the dietary habits, blood cholesterol concentrations, and CHD rates of their new country of residence.

    The Masai people, the Polynesians and many more were ignored; nothing was said either about Marmot’s studies of the Japanese emigrants.

    Proof #5

    Severity and frequency of raised plaques in the aorta and coronary arteries are strongly correlated with blood cholesterol levels.

    Amazing, isn’t it? Maintain any delusion again and again, no matter how far from reality it may be, and it may finally be taken for the truth. See chapter 5 for the facts.

    Proof #6

    Populations experiencing severe dietary (especially fat) limitations and weight loss have been shown to have less atherosclerosis and CHD and fewer heart attacks.

    Many other factors than lack of dietary fat are different in severely deprived people; no conclusions can be drawn from such observations.

    Proof #7

    Epidemiological studies have shown that elevated blood cholesterol levels in healthy people predict the future occurrence of coronary heart disease.

    … except for Maoris, Stockholmers, Greeks, Finns and Canadians, except for women and men after forty-seven, and except for those who already have had a coronary.

    Proof #8

    Evidence emerging from multiple clinical trials clearly indicates that lowering blood cholesterol levels in patients with a high blood cholesterol level decreases the likelihood of fatal and nonfatal coronary heart disease.

    A few lines after the above statement, the consensus report said that none of the previous dietary trials had proven that a lowering of blood cholesterol can diminish the incidence of coronary heart disease. In both the “proving” trials (LRC and CLAS), cholesterol had been lowered with drugs because diet was considered insufficient. Thus, the panel admitted, that no trial with diet had proven beneficial. At that time no drug trial either had lowered fatal coronary heart disease with statistical significance.

    Proof #9

    Thus, the evidence obtained from genetic, experimental, epidemiological, and clinical intervention investigations overwhelmingly supports a causal relationship between blood cholesterol levels and coronary heart disease.

    This was all of it. This is the scientific foundation of the cholesterol campaign, the numerous proofs that do not suffice one by one but that, taken together, are so “overwhelming.”

    The panel considered the conclusive power so great that they had no doubts when it came to recommendations.

    Recommendation #1

    More than a dozen randomized trials of the effects of fat-controlled diets or drugs permit the conclusion that reduction of blood cholesterol levels in people with relatively high initial levels will reduce the rate of coronary heart disease. This has been shown most convincingly in men with a high cholesterol level, but although direct intervention studies have not been conducted in women, there is no reason to propose a separate treatment schedule for women.

    Nothing was said about the fact that most trials did not demonstrate any benefit (in fact both the number of deaths and the number of heart attacks had increased in some of them); or that in most studies high cholesterol has not been associated with an increased coronary mortality for women.

    Recommendation #2

    Individuals in the high-risk group (above 6.2 mmol/l (242 mg/dl) at an age of 30-39; above 6.7 mmol/l (261 mg/dl) at an age above 40) should primarily have intensive dietary treatment requiring a major effort on the part of physicians, nutritionists, dieticians, and other health professionals. If this treatment does not work, drug therapy should be used.

    Thus, only in the United States, tens of millions of healthy individuals should be on a diet. Let’s hope that there are enough health professionals to carry out this daring project.

    The drug producers and their stock holders should be happy, because, as you now know, it is extremely difficult to lower blood cholesterol with diet alone. The panel also knew it: after all, the control individuals in the LRC trial had eaten the recommended diet, and their cholesterol decreased less than one percent. No doubt about it—drugs would be necessary.

    Recommendation #3

    Individuals with moderate-risk blood cholesterol (above 5.7 mmol/l (220 mg/dl) at an age of 30-39; above 6.2 mmol/l (240 mg/dl) at an age above 40), — the upper 25 percent on the cholesterol scale — should also have intensive dietary treatment, and if other risk factors were present, drug therapy should be considered.

    Further tens of millions of Americans on drab diet and dangerous drugs! In the LRC trial those from the upper 0.8 percent on the cholesterol scale were treated, and with drugs. And only after enormous effort could the trial directors come up with a result that nobody but a statistical incompetent could see as positive.

    If it is that difficult with drugs to improve the prognosis for people with the most extreme cholesterol levels, how can diet alone produce a benefit for those with no more than a moderately high cholesterol?

    Recommendation #4

    Blood cholesterol is too high in most Americans because they eat too much saturated fat, too many calories, and too much cholesterol.

    To avoid conflicts between the proponents, the recommendations included all the suggested diets.

    Recommendation #5

    Therefore, all Americans except children below the age of two are recommended a diet with no more than 250-300 mg cholesterol per day, and a reduction of total saturated fat intake to 10% or less of total calories, and an increase of polyunsaturated fat intake but to no more than 10% of total calories. The goal is to reduce blood cholesterol in the entire population to less than 5.0 mmol/l (195 mg/dl).

    Here everybody is urged to eat what was originally advised for the high-risk group, except that people with normal cholesterol do not get help from health professionals. These people, the majority, have to judge for themselves when the magical ten per cent limit for polyunsaturated fat has been reached, the limit between harmless and dangerous amount. Nobody knows how the panel members found just that limit as crucial; nor why they chose a cholesterol limit of 195 mg/dl (5 mmol/l). (Every authority sees to have his own limit; the chosen value was probably determined by a vote).

    Recommendation #6

    There is no direct evidence of the benefit to be expected in the elderly, but dietary treatment may still be helpful.

    Apart from the fact that there is no evidence either for the rest of mankind, why should we sour the lives of the elderly with an unpleasant diet if its benefit has never been proven? And remember you belong to the elderly as soon as you reach the age of forty-seven.

    Recommendation #7

    Also children should have treatment but not before the age of two. If blood cholesterol is above 4.4 mmol/l (172 mg/dl) diet is recommended; if it is above 5.2 mmol/l (203 mg/dl), drugs should be given, for instance, cholestyramine.

    Poor kids! Remember that two out of three trial subjects given cholestyramine had gas, heartburn, belching, bloating, abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, constipation or diarrhea.

    Recommendation #8

    If the American population follow the recommendations of the National Cholesterol Education Program, substantial improvements are in sight. For instance, if the cholesterol is lowered by five percent, the risk of having a heart attack will be reduced by ten percent.

    These figures, which are cited in all official papers on cholesterol and diet, are grossly misleading. The risk of having a heart attack in the LRC trial was lowered from 9.8 to 8.1 percent, a difference of only 1.7 percentage point. This equals 0.2 percentage point for each percent of cholesterol lowering, which means a total of only one percentage point if blood cholesterol is lowered by 5 percent. But this whole line of reasoning is absurd because, after all, the LRC trial did not lower the number of heart attacks more than could be explained by chance.

    Recommendation #9

    The absolute magnitude of this benefit should be greater in patients at high risk from existing coronary heart disease or the presence of other risk factors such as cigarette smoking and hypertension.

    This statement is preposterous. The calculations mentioned above were based on the figures from the LRC trial which studied no one but high risk individuals.

    No reservations

    The panel had no reservations except to say that a number of problems should be investigated in the future (thus ensuring  huge amounts of future government welfare for scientists and research doctors). They suggested for instance, that more information should be gained about the possible danger of eating great amounts of polyunsaturated fat. Let us hope that a diet, very high in polyunsaturated fatty acids is not harmful, but it would have been wise to perform such studies before launching a campaign to reform everyone’s diet. 

    The document prompted protests from many scientists, but, as we know, without any impact whatsoever. The cholesterol campaign has flourished ever since then and has spread to many other countries. Rumors are circulating that Ancel Keys has been suggested as a candidate for the Nobel prize. 

    Nothing was mentioned in the consensus report about the numerous unsupportive studies I have discussed in this book. And contrary to the initial statement of the consensus report many scientists have not agreed about the dangers of fat food and cholesterol. In the next chapter I shall present some of the critics  and their objections.

    ———

    Here are links to the other chapters in the book.

    ———

    This chapter is from the book
    The Cholesterol Myths: Exposing the Fallacy that Saturated Fat and Cholesterol Cause Heart Disease
    by Uffe Ravnskov, MD, PhD.

    Dr. Ravnskov has given me the permission to share this version of his book to help educate the world about the cholesterol campaign.

    Information about Uffe Ravnskov, MD, PhD is posted here.

    More information about Cholesterol Myths is posted on his website here.

    Dr. Ravnskov posted his book for free here.

    Several versions of the ebook can downloaded from Dropbox here or from SmashWords here.

    Uffe Ravnskov, MD, PhD is the founder of The International Network of Cholesterol Skeptics (THINCS.org) which can be found here.

    Articles on the same subject can be found here:


    COMMENTS

    Please feel free to share your comments about this article.


    Name:

    Email:

    Comments:

    Please enter the word you see in the image below:


    Remember my personal information

    Notify me of follow-up comments?



    © Copyright 2003-2017 - Larry Hobbs - All Rights Reserved.