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    The benefits of consuming more potassium: lower risk of heart disease, stroke, cancer and death


    Posted by .(JavaScript must be enabled to view this email address)
    Sunday, June 02, 2019 5:02 pm Email this article

    Numerous studies have shown that people who consume more potassium have the following benefits:

    The average U.S. adult consumes 2700 mg/day.

    The National Academy of Sciences recommends we consume at least 4700 mg per day.

    Below is evidence from several studies about the benefits of consuming more potassium.

     

    The one-fifth of women consuming the most potassium, 4500 mg of potassium per day, were 33% less likely to have coronary heart disease during a 7.6 year study than the one-fifth of women consuming the least potassium, an average of 1560 mg per day according to The Scottish Heart Health Study.

    The one-fifth of women consuming the most potassium, 4500 mg of potassium per day, were 55% less likely to DIE from coronary heart disease during a 7.6 year study than the one-fifth of women consuming the least potassium, an average of 1560 mg per day according to The Scottish Heart Health Study.

    The of women consuming the most potassium, 4500 mg of potassium per day, were 59% less likely to DIE from all causes combined during a 7.6 year study than the one-fifth of women consuming the least potassium, an average of 1560 mg per day according to The Scottish Heart Health Study.

    The one-fifth of men consuming the most potassium, 5400 mg of potassium per day, were 34% less likely to have coronary heart disease during a 7.6 year study than the one-fifth of men consuming the least potassium, an average of 1840 mg per day according to The Scottish Heart Health Study.

    The one-fifth of men consuming the most potassium, 5400 mg of potassium per day, were 40% less likely to DIE from coronary heart disease during a 7.6 year study than the one-fifth of men consuming the least potassium, an average of 1840 mg per day according to The Scottish Heart Health Study.

    The one-fifth of men consuming the most potassium, 5400 mg of potassium per day, were 55% less likely to DIE from all causes combined during a 7.6 year study than the one-fifth of men consuming the least potassium, an average of 1840 mg per day according to The Scottish Heart Health Study.

    The one-fifth of women consuming the most potassium, 4500 mg of potassium per day, were 15% less likely to DIE from all causes combined during a 7.6 year study than the one-fifth of women consuming the 
2nd least potassium, an average of 2700 mg per day according to The Scottish Heart Health Study.

    The one-fifth of men consuming the most potassium, 5400 mg of potassium per day, were 22% less likely to DIE from all causes combined during a 7.6 year study than the one-fifth of men consuming the 2nd least potassium, an average of 3350 mg per day according to The Scottish Heart Health Study.

    “[ There was ] an unexpectedly powerful protective relation of dietary potassium to all cause mortality,” this authors of this paper about The Scottish Heart Health Study concluded.

    Reference

    Tunstall-Pedoe H, et al. Comparison of the prediction by 27 different factors of coronary heart disease and death in men and women of the Scottish Heart Health Study: cohort study. BMJ, 1997 Sep 20; 315(7110): 722-729.
    ____

    The one-fifth of people consuming the most potassium (3363 mg per day) were 35% less likely to DIE from coronary heart disease during a 12.7 year follow-up than the one-fifth of people consuming the least potassium (1720 mg per day) according to a 2008 study from Japan.

    The one-fifth of people consuming the most potassium relative to sodium (77%) were 30% less likely to have an ischemic stroke during a 24 year follow-up than the one-fifth of people consuming the least potassium to sodium (36%) according to study from Japan.

    The one-fifth of people consuming the most potassium relative to sodium (77%) were 37% less likely to have a hemorrhagic stroke during a 24 year follow-up than the one-fifth of people consuming the least potassium to sodium (36%) according to study from Japan.

    The one-fifth of people consuming the most potassium relative to sodium (77%) were 22% less likely to have cardiovascular disease during a 24 year follow-up than the one-fifth of people consuming the least potassium to sodium (36%) according to study from Japan.

    The one-fifth of people consuming the most potassium relative to sodium (77%) were 14% less likely to DIE from all causes combined during a 24 year follow-up than the one-fifth of people consuming the least potassium to sodium (36%) according to study from Japan.

    Reference

    Okayama A, … Ueshima H. Dietary sodium-to-potassium ratio as a risk factor for stroke, cardiovascular disease and all-cause mortality in Japan: the NIPPON DATA80 cohort study. BMJ Open, 2016 Jul 13; 6(7): e011632.
    ___

    Simply replacing salt with potassium-enriched salt reduced the risk of DYING from cardiovascular-related causes in elderly men by 41% over 2.5 years according to a study from Taiwan.

    Reference

    Chang H, Hu Y, Yue C, Wen Y, Yeh W, Hsu L, Tsai S, Pan W. Effect of potassium-enriched salt on cardiovascular mortality and medical expenses of elderly men. Am J Clin Nutr. 2006 Jun, 83(6):1289-96.
    ___

    A 400 mg increase in daily potassium intake 
 was associated with a 40% reduction in the risk of 
 stroke-associated death during a 12 year follow-up according to a 1987 study which followed 859 men and women, 
 aged 50 to 79 years, in Southern California.

    In the one-third (1/3) of people consuming the least amount of potassium, stroke mortality was 2.6 times higher in men and 4.8 times higher in women compared to the two-thirds (2/3) of people consuming the most potassium.

    Reference

    Khaw KT, and Barrett-Connor E. Dietary potassium and stroke-associated mortality. A 12year prospective population study. N Engl J Med, 1987 Jan 29; 316(5): 235-240.
    ___

    A high ratio of potassium to sodium was associated with a 30-32% lower risk of colon cancer and rectal cancer in women according to The Melbourne Colorectal Cancer Study.

    Reference

    Kune GA, Kune S, and Watson LF. Dietary sodium and potassium intake and colorectal cancer risk. 
 Nutr Cancer, 1989; 12(4): 351-359.
    ___

    A 2010 study found that giving people 2500 mg of potassium per day in the form of either potassium chloride or potassium bicarbonate had numerous benefits on the heart including “significantly improved endothelial function”, “increased large elastic artery compliance”, “reduced [ left ventricular ] mass”, “improved [ left ventricular ] diastolic function”.

    The authors of this study noted that:

    “Both [ left ventricular ] mass and [ left ventricular ] function are important independent predictors of cardiovascular morbidity and [ cardiovascular ] mortality.”

    They also noted that, “These results indicate that an increase in potassium intake has beneficial effects on the cardiovascular system and bone health.”

    [ Potassium chloride reduced urinary albumin, and potassium bicarbonate reduced urinary calcium, both of which are associated with bone health. ]

    Reference

    He FJ, Marciniak M, Carney C, Markandu ND, Anand V, Fraser WD, Dalton RN, Kaski JC, and Macgregor GA. Effects of potassium chloride and potassium bicarbonate on endothelial function, cardiovascular risk factors, and bone turnover in mild hypertensives. Hypertension, 2010 Mar; 55(3): 681-688.
    ___

    The one-fourth of people (21 to 85 years old) excreting the most potassium in their urine were 32% less likely to DIE from all causes combined during a 27.5 year follow-up than the one-fourth of people excreting the least potassium according to study from Japan.

    The one-fourth of people (21 to 85 years old) excreting the most potassium in their urine were 16% less likely to DIE from all causes combined during a 27.5 year follow-up than the one-fourth of people excreting the 2nd most potassium according to study from Japan.

    Reference

    Nohara-Shitama Y, et al. Twenty-four-Hour Urinary Potassium Excretion, But Not Sodium Excretion, Is Associated With All-Cause Mortality in a General Population. J Am Heart Assoc, 2018 Jan 4; 7(1): Published on-line.
    ___

    The average potassium intake for U.S. adults is:

    Men: 3016 mg per day
    Women: 2320 mg per day

    Here is what The National Academy of Sciences (in the US) says about how much potassium we should be consuming.

    “Adults should consume at least 4.7 grams [4700 mg] of potassium per day to lower blood pressure, blunt the effects of salt, and reduce the risk of kidney stones and bone loss.”

    “However, most American women 31 to 50 years old consume no more than half of the recommended amount 
 of potassium, and men’s intake is only moderately higher.”

    “There was no evidence of chronic excess intakes of potassium in apparently health individuals 
and thus no [ upper limit for potassium intake ] 
was established.”

    Reference

    The National Academy of Sciences (US). 
 Dietary Reference Intakes: Water, Potassium, Sodium, Chloride, and Sulfate. 2004.

    http://www.nationalacademies.org/hmd/Reports/2004/
 Dietary-Reference-Intakes-Water-Potassium-Sodium-Chloride-and-Sulfate.aspx

     

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