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    Time-line of events relating to obesity and eating disorders


    Posted by .(JavaScript must be enabled to view this email address)
    Tuesday, May 04, 2004 2:52 pm Email this article
    Here is a time-line of events relating to obesity and eating disorders according to "The Encyclopedia of Obesity and Eating Disorders" by Dana K. Cassell and Felix E. Larocca. Please let me know if you are aware of other milestones that should be included. Thanks.

    1873
    The term anorexia nervosa is first used by physician Sir William Gull.

    1900
    C. Von Noorden classified obesity into two types: exogenous, due to overeating and under-exercising; and endogenous, due to metabolism.

    1921
    The skinfold test to measure obesity is introduced.

    1933
    Reducing drug called dinitro-ortho-creso is introduced.

    1935
    Doctors in Budapest surgically removed 93 pounds of fat from 379-pound man.

    1948
    Scientists at Brown University link obesity to heredity.

    1951
    Metropolitan Life Insurance Company starts drive to curb obesity.

    1953
    Dorset Foods begins marketing canned foods with calorie information printed on the label. Knickerbocker Hospital in New York establishes obesity treatment center

    1954
    J. Wolpe attempts to treat overeating with classical aversion methods using electric shock

    1957
    U.S. House subcommittee holds hearings on misleading remedies for weight loss. Better Business Bureau says Americans spent $100 million in 1956 on worthless remedies. Phenylpropanolamine is declared harmful

    1959
    First Metropolitan Life Insurance Company height and weight tables are published.

    1960
    Milk companies begin to market skim milk as diet food.

    1961
    Yale doctors find link between weight gain and heart problems.

    1965
    First intestinal bypass operation for weight loss.

    1966
    The U.S. Public Health Service reports on obesity as a major health problem and finds diets are of limited value and urges exercise. The report rejects height/weight charts to test for obesity and recommends skinfold pinch test instead. Study finds males 7 pounds heavier and females 11 pounds heavier than in the 1959 Metropolitan Life charts. Study finds colleges discriminate against obese in admissions.

    1967
    A Senate subcommittee probes diet pill industry, charging that manufacturers recruit doctors to promote drugs.

    1969
    Higher-paid executives found thinner than lower-paid employees.

    1970
    FDA proposes limiting manufacture of amphetamines.

    1972
    Americans spend $2 billion on useless gadgets and $10 billion on useless pills.

    FDA study finds diet pills are no aid to weight loss. FDA mails bulletin to 600,000 health professionals warning of the hazards of diet pills

    1973
    FDA recalls amphetamines. Bureau of Narcotics places restrictions of non-amphetamine prescription diet pills including benphetamine, fenfluramine & phendimetrazine. More than half of Canadians are found overweight due to sedentary life-style.

    1974
    FDA announces human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG) worthless for weight loss

    1977
    46 deaths and 200 injuries associated with liquid protein diets. Americans are 4 lbs heavier than a decade earlier. 3.3 million prescriptions written for amphetamines.

    1979
    Study shows overeating, not heredity primary cause of obesity. FDA panel finds phenylpropanolamine (PPA) helpful for some dieters. FDA bans use of amphetamines for weight loss.

    1982
    Liposuction is first reported.

    1983
    New height/weight tables increase weights 2-13 lbs for men, 3-8 lbs for women.

    1985
    NIH defines obesity as a disease.

    1988
    Two studies show evidence of genetic cause of obesity. Anorectics and bulimics double from 3% to 7% in previous two years indicating pressure for thinness.

    1990
    Five-year study by Dr. Thomas Wadden shows 98% of dieters regain all lost weight within five years.

    1997 July
    The Mayo Clinic reports finding heart valve damage in patients taking either fenflurlamine or dexfenfluramine.

    1997 Nov
    Meridia (sibutramine hydrochloride monohydrate) was approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) on November 24, 1997.

    1999
    Xenical (orlistat) was approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) on April 23, 1999.

    REFERENCE

    The Encyclopedia of Obesity & Eating Disorders : Book Review
    by Dana K. Cassell and Felix E. Larocca, 1994, Facts on File,
    ISBN 0-8160-1985-1, 259 pages

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