QUICKLINKS AND VIEW OPITONS
Liquid calories do not decrease appetite
Wednesday, October 27, 2010 8:02 am Email this article
Liquid calories, such as in soft drinks, do not decrease appetite the way that solid calories do according to a recent study from Purdue University in West Lafayette, Indiana. Since soda consumption has increased at least 40 percent since the late 1970's, this may help partially explain the rapid rise in obesity.
Lean people eating 450 calories per day of jellybeans for a month ??? calories as solid food ??? they reduced the rest of the food they ate during the rest of the day by 530 calories per day ??? more than enough to compensate for the calories from the jelly beans.
However, when these same people consumed 450 calories as caffeine-free soda per day for a month, they did not reduce calories they ate during the rest of the day. They ate slighty more—76 calories more than they did before the study started in addition to the 450 calories from the soda.Effect of Solid Calories on Intake
Solid calories reduced fat, protein & carbohydrate intake
While the group consumed the jellybeans for a month, they:
- Reduced their fat intake by 20 grams per day, from 76 to 56 grams per day.
- Reduced their protein intake by 14 grams per day, from 86 to 72 grams per day.
- Reduced their carbohydrate intake by 273 grams per day, from 297 to 24 grams per day.
Effect of Liquid Calories on Fat Intake
Liquid calories increased fat intake
While the group consumed 450 calories per day as soft drinks for a month, they:
- Increased their fat intake by 8 grams per day from 77 to 85 grams per day.
- Reduced their protein intake by 41 grams per day from 130 to 91 grams per day.
- Reduced their carbohydrate intake by 49 grams per day from 291 to 242 grams per day.
Subjects: 7 men, 7 women
The study consisted of 7 men and 7 women who on average were 23-years-old and had a body mass index (BMI) of 22.
Everybody consumed 450 calories as caffeine-free soft drink for one month (4 weeks), and then after waiting one month they consumed 450 calories per day as jelly beans. They could consume them anytime during the day.
Effect on Hunger or Exercise
No difference in hunger or exercise
Subjects reported no difference in hunger or physical activity during either period.
Both groups gained a little weight, but while drinking the soda they gained a little more.
While eating the jellybeans for a month, they gained 0.8 pounds—they went from an average weight of 149.5 pounds to 150.3 pounds—however, this was not statistically significant.
However, while consuming the soda for a month, they gained 1.1 pounds—they went from an average weight of 149.0 pounds to 150.1 pounds. This was statistically significant.
Note: This is a good example of how difficult it is to determine how much a person will gain or lose simple by making a few measurements of calorie intake.
Theoretically, the difference in body weight should have been about 4 pounds rather than 0.3 pounds. When consuming the soda they ate an extra 500 calories per day X 7 days per week X 4 weeks = 3500 calories X 4 weeks = 4 pounds, but it did not turn out that way.
Study Needs to Be Repeated
Study needs to be repeated with obese people
This study was done on young, lean people. It needs to be repeated on overweight and obese people to see how they react.
Previous research has found that lean people tend to be very good at adjusting their calorie intake, so that if they overeat at one meal, they under-eat at the next so that they do not overeat for the day, whereas obese people tend to be very bad at adjusting their calorie intake. Overeating at one meal does not tend to reduce calorie intake at the next.
Chewing reduces appetite
Previous research has found that chewing increases satiety.
This may be one of the reasons that solid calories reduce appetite, whereas liquid calories do not.
Solid Foods Effect on Metabolism
Solid food raises metabolism more than liquid
Previous research has also found that solid calories raise metabolism more than the same amount of liquid calories.
High-Fructose Corn Syrup
Sodas contained high-fructose corn syrup; jellybeans sucrose
It should be noted that the soft drinks contained high-fructose corn syrup, whereas the jellybeans contained sucrose. (See the recent articles on the problems with high-fructose corn syrup.)
Dimeglio D, Mattes R. Liquid versus solid carbohydrate: effects on food intake and body weight. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord. 2000 Jun, 24(6):794-800.
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