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  • People consume 43% more when a food is in liquid form

    Posted by .(JavaScript must be enabled to view this email address)
    Monday, August 09, 2010 9:27 am Email this article
    People consume 43 percent more of a food when it is in liquid form compared to when it is in semi-solid form according to a study from researchers at the Top Institute Food and Nutrition in Wageningen, The Netherlands.

    Note: The paper made a couple errors in their calculations. The said the increase was 30 percent, but this is not correct. The correct number is 43 percent. Liquid vs Semi-Liquid

    Liquid vs Semi-Liquid: 16% more

    People consume 16 percent more of a food when it is in liquid form compared to when it is in semi-liquid form.



    Intake: Liquid vs Semi-liquid vs Semi-Solid: 809 grams vs 699 grams vs 566 grams

    Subjects consumed an average of 809 grams when the food was in liquid form, 699 grams when it was in semi-liquid form, and 566 grams when it was in semi-solid form.

    In ounces this is 28.5 ounces versus 24.6 ounces versus 20 ounces.



    Subjects: 108 people, average age 27, BMI 23

    This study involved 108 people in a real-life setting.

    On average, subjects were 27-years-old, and had a body mass index (BMI) of 22.7 (lean).


    Chocolate-flavored liquid

    Chocolate-flavored liquid, semi-liquid or semi-solid

    Subjects were given ” a chocolate flavored liquid, semi-liquid and semi-solid milk-based product, similar in palatability, macronutrient composition and energy density.”

    “The basis of all chocolate products was whole fat milk (68%), water (18%), sugar (6.5%), modified starch (3.5%), cream (2%), cacao (1.5%) and carrageenan (0.05%),” according to the paper.

    “The type starch was varied in the products to obtain three identical products differing solely in physical state, a liquid (comparable to commercially available chocolate milk), a semi-liquid and a semi-solid product (comparable to commercially available chocolate custard).”



    Conclusion: Perhaps we are not well equipped to sense liquid calories

    “Perhaps the human appetite system is not well equipped to sense liquid calories,” the researchers concluded.

    “In nature, calories in liquid form do not occur, except for milk during infancy, which is a period of rapid growth.”


    Previous Study

    Previous study found people ate 12-19% more calories in liquid form

    A previous study from Purdue University found that people ate 12-19 percent more calories in liquid form than in solid form.



    Comment: Best weight loss doctor I know tells patients no liquid calories

    Dr. Jay Piatek, the best weight loss doctor I know, tells is patients “no liquid calories”.

    This study confirms what he has been saying.


    Zijlstra N, Mars M, De Wijk RA, Westerterp-Plantenga MS, De Graaf C. The effect of viscosity on ad libitum food intake. Int J Obes (Lond). 2008 Apr, 32(4):676-83.


    Professor C. de Graaf
    Division of Human Nutrition
    Top Institute Food and Nutrition
    PO Box 8129, 6700 EV
    Wageningen, The Netherlands
    .(JavaScript must be enabled to view this email address)


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